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Modeling (predicting) browning of fresh-cut apples over the storage time: Changes of color influenced by various cultivars and anti-browning treatments

This study evaluated color change (ΔE*ab) of various apples cultivars (AC) (n=210): (i) Idared, (ii) Golden Delicious, (iii) Gala, (iv) Gloster, (v) Cripps Pink, (vi) Breaburn, and (vii) Fuji) treated with different anti-browning treatments (ABT) (n=600): (i) ascorbic+citric acid; (ii) ascorbic acid + NaCl; (iii) ascorbic acid + CaCl2, (iv) NaCl, (v) citric acid, and (vi) Ca-ascorbate). The best ABT were tested with or without ultrasound (n=192). The effectiveness of ABT was determined as negative effect on ΔE*ab over storage time (ST). The best AC were Cripps Pink and Golden Delicious and the best tested ABT were Ca-ascorbate and ascorbic+citric acid. Results yielded 5 mathematical models for predicting: (i) browning of AC over ST with ABT; (ii) browning of AC over ST without ABT or different ABT); (iii) sensory evaluation of AC with ABT; (iv) soluble solids content, and (v) pH for different AC. Mathematical equations/models can optimize engineering parameters for fresh-cutting (by identifying the best combination of AC, ABT, and longest ST that apples can have with acceptable sensory evaluation. Application available at apple.pbf.hr or

NON-TREATED APPLES: [1. Browning with storage time][2. Soluble solids content] [3. pH]
TREATED APPLES: [4. Browning with storage time][5. Sensory Evaluation]

Modeling (predicting) shelf-life of fresh-cut apples packaged in modified atmosphere by food quality

The objective was to predict shelf-life for fresh-cut apples under industrial settings as a function of food quality, derived from food technology parameters and microbial spoilage. Golden Delicious (GD) and Cripps Pink (CP), were treated with 5 anti-browning treatments (ABT) and packaged in modified atmosphere (N2=90.5%, CO2=2.5% and O2=7%; Tshelf-life=4±2°C). Treatments were: no treatment; ascorbic+citric acid with/without ultrasound; and Ca-ascorbate with/without ultrasound. The CP was the most suitable cultivar for fresh-cut. All ABT showed similar performance under industrial settings with exception to 'no treatment' that negatively affected apple quality. Apple food technology parameters were cumulatively evaluated as relative shelf-life predicted by mathematical equation with predictors: cultivar, ABT, colorimetry, sensory evaluation, pH, and soluble solids content. Estimated μmax (Enterobacteriacae) = 0.25±0.02 log CFU / g*day and μmax (Aerobic mesophilic bacteria) = 0.46±0.02 log CFU / g*day. All created models are available in free on-line computer simulation ("Anti-browning Apple Calculator - C.A.P.P.A.B.L.E.©"; apple.pbf.hr or

TREATED APPLES: [1. Fresh-cut apple shelf-life]

Modeling browning of fresh-cut apples during storage in modified atmosphere packaging: Influence of cultivar, anti-browning solutions, time, CIELab, packaging gasses, and advanced technology

Objectives were to compare differences in color change (ΔE*ab) over shelf-life (SL) for 2 apple cultivars (Golden Delicious, GD; Cripps Pink, CP) treated with 5 antibrowning treatments (ABT) (no treatment; ascorbic+citric acid with/without ultrasound; Ca-ascorbate with/without ultrasound) in presence of normal or modified atmosphere (MA). Plus, to assess influences of respiration rates on ΔE*ab for all combinations of cultivars and ABT. Original color of apples was better preserved in MA. The absence of ABT showed highest ΔE*ab, while all ABT showed similar change in color regardless of MA application. Browning prevention of ascorbic+citric acid may be improved with application of ultrasound. Production of CO2 oscillated with color change for both cultivars with different ABT. The GD will endure browning better than CP, while Ca-ascorbate is one of the best ABT. All created mathematical models are freely available in computer simulation ("Anti-browning Apple Calculator - C.A.P.P.A.B.L.E.©"; apple.pbf.hr or

TREATED APPLES: [1. Modified vs. normal atmosphere][2. Browning (CIELab) modified vs. normal atmosphere]

Influence of respiration on predictive microbial growth of Aerobic mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae in fresh-cut apples packaged under modified atmosphere)

Objectives in this study were to model/predict simultaneous influences of apple O2-consumption/CO2-production rates and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (from volumetric concentrations of O2/CO2 on microbial growth (Aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB); Enterobacteriaceae (Ebac)) in 2 fresh-cut apple cultivars treated with 5 anti-browning treatments and stored in refrigerator. Growth of both microorganisms was best predicted by length of shelf-life, With AMB/EBac growth, cultivar's decreased together withn in packaging. Similarly, with microbial growth dropped, while simultaneously increase was observed in package. Regression coefficients ratios for AMB-respiration models are similar to ratios for stoichiometric coefficients for respiration equation with malic acid as main substrate. Hence, presented models likely captured natural relations between predictors, and gave good estimate of AMB growth and its association with respiration in MAP. Apple browning had weak or no association with bacterial growth. Obtained models may be utilized to optimize industrial parameters with least AMB/Ebac growth, hence facilitate extension of fresh-cut apple self-life. Relationships between fresh-cut apples O2-consumption/CO2-production rates, volumetric concentrations of O2/CO2 in modified atmosphere packaging and microbial growth AMB/Ebac were established and yielded mathematical models which may be utilized to optimize industrial parameters with least AMB/Ebac growth, hence facilitate extension of fresh-cut apple self-life. All equations and models are publicly accessible at apple.pbf.hr or, and can be used to calculate almost every parameter relevant for apple respiration and apple browning (only for permeable system). Additionally, users can choose their own production settings (size of package, initial volumetric concentration of gases, apple mass), and calculate optimal values (with least browning) for their fresh-cut processes (taking into account their own packaging film and others). Therefore, results presented in this paper may have practical applications for the fresh-cut industry.

TREATED APPLES: [1. Microbial gwowth and modified atmosphere]

Combined influences of modified atmosphere, apple respiration and superficial browning on the polyphenolic stability in fresh-cut apples: HPLC-DAD identification and quantification

Objectives were to evaluate various influences on nutritive value in fresh-cut apples on polyphenolic stability by: minimal processing (type of cultivar, anti-browning treatments, and the length of storage); apple respiration; and superficial browning. Studied cultivars were Cripps Pink and Golden Delicious. Anti-browning agents were ascorbic with citric acid and sole Ca-ascorbate that were combined with the influence of the ultrasound as application of advanced technology. Identified polyphenolics in all samples were: chlorogenic and coumaric acid, quercetin, epicatechin, and phloridzin. Cripps Pink was richer on flavonoids and had higher antioxidant capacities than Golden Delicious. Application of any anti-browning treatments did not influence quantities of polyphenols but they showed improved antioxidative capacity in comparison to control. Epicatechin and antioxidant capacity decreased with storage. Microbial growth had no association with majority of polyphenols (except epicatechin), where it was possible that they aid oxidation of epicatechin to quercetin together with apple respiratory processes.


Pizent, G., Putnik, P., Bursac Kovacevc, D., Herceg, K., Levaj, B., (2014). Anti-browning Apple Calculator - C.A.P.P.A.B.L.E. ©: http://apple.pbf.hr (IP:, 1.0 ed, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University in Zagreb.


This work is made possible through the help and support from Business Innovation Croatian Agency - BICRO Poc4_01_43-U-1.